Sunday, January 24, 2016

Baird's Rat Snake (Pantherophis bairdi)

An Annotated Bibliography of Baird's Rat Snake
(Pantherophis bairdi)

Compiled by Tom Lott [TEL] - Last updated: 24 January 2016

[These bibliographies and their annotations are an on-going project. I have many comments on papers that I have not yet posted but I will attempt to attend to this task as time allows. Comments proffered in the annotations are strictly my own opinions and should be taken as such. If you wish to comment or supply additional references that I have overlooked, you may contact me via E-mail. To correspond with me, Email me at tomlott[at]thornscrub[dot]com.  Thanks for reading, Tom Lott ]

Axtell, R. W. 1959b. Amphibians and reptiles of the Black Gap Wildlife Management Area, Brewster County, Texas. Southwest. Nat. 4(2): 88-109.  [This species was not found by Axtell's group of 14 graduate students in geology and zoology who spent five weeks in the area during June and July of 1951 at the beginning of the notorious 1950-1956 drought.  Doubtless the drought may have had something to do with this as a number of other species with similar requirements were found there - TEL]

Boulenger, E.G. 1894aCatalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, vol. 2.  London: Taylor and Francis. 

Boundy, J.  1997.  Maximum lengths of North American Snakes.  Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc. 29(6): 109-122.  [Cites the maximum length for the species as 1575 mm (62.0 in., fide Brecke et al. 1976, from Val Verde Co., Texas) - TEL]

Bowler, J.K. 1977.   Longevity of reptiles and amphibians in North American collections as of 1 November, 1975.  Herp. Circular/Soc. Stud. Amph. Rept., Lawrence: 1-32.

Brecke, B.J., J.B. Murphy, and W. Seifert. 1976.  An inventory of reproduction and social behavior in captive Baird’s ratsnakes Elaphe obsoleta bairdi (Yarrow).  Herpetologica 32(4):389-95.

Brown, A.E. 1903. Texas reptiles and their faunal relations.  Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 53: 543-558.  

Brown, B. C. 1950. An annotated check list of the reptiles and amphibians of Texas. Waco: Baylor University Studies.  [Lists only 9 localities in four counties: Bandera (2), Brewster (3), Jeff Davis (3), and Kerr (1).  "The rarest Texan Elaphe has a much broader distribution than has been supposed, but enough specimens are not extant at this time to provide a clear definition of its range.  The relationship of Elaphe bairdi with the other members of the genus and its natural history needs examination."  - TEL]

Burbrink, F. T. 2001.  Systematics of the eastern ratsnake complex (Elaphe obsoleta).   Herpetological Monographs 15: 1-53.  [Regardless of one's opinion of the taxonomic conclusions of this paper and its predecessor (Burbrink, et al. 2000), it is a treasure trove of morphological data that has been run through univariate and multivariate analyses.   In fact, this work, examining 67 morphological characters in 1006 specimens, does a much better job of reinforcing the distinctions between Burbrink's purported western clade (E. obsoleta) and E. bairdi than it does in differentiating between his proposed three new species carved out of the complex. - TEL]

____________, Lawson, R., and J.B. Slowinski. 2000.  Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the North American rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta): a critique of the subspecies concept.  Evolution 54: 2107-2114. 

Cochran, D.M. 1961.  Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National MuseumBull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 220: 1-291.

Cochran, D.M. and C.J. Goin. 1970The new field book of reptiles and amphibians.  New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.  Pp. 1-359. 

Conant, R. 1958. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of the United States and Canada east of the 100th meridian. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

________. 1975. A field guide to the reptiles and amphibians: Eastern and central North America. 2nd edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

________. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to the reptiles and amphibians: Eastern and central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

________. and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to the reptiles and amphibians: Eastern and central North America. 3rd edition (expanded) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Cope, E.D. 1891.  A critical review of the characters and variations of the snakes of North AmericaProc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 14: 589-694.  

________. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Annu. Rept. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 155-1294.

Dearth, R.L. 2004.  Natural history notes: Elaphe bairdi (Baird's rat snake).  Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 35:65-66.  [Although Cliff Swallows (Hirundo pyrrhonota) were previously known to be included in the diet of P. bairdi (Olson 1967), this account provides a detailed description of the methods employed by a large specimen to dangle itself from a cliff some 30 meters above the Frio River at midday in May of 2000 in Real County, Texas.  Six nests (out of ~ 36 active) were investigated by the snake, with their contents (presumably young swallows) consumed - TEL]

Dial, B.E. 1965.  Pattern and coloration in juveniles of two west Texas ElapheHerpetologica 21(1): 75-78.  

Dixon, J. R. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. W. L. Moody, Jr., Nat. Hist. Ser. 8. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

_________. 1993. Supplement to the literature for the Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. 1987. Smithson. Herpetol. Info. Serv. 94: 1-43.

_________. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. 2nd Ed. W. L. Moody, Jr., Nat. Hist. Ser. 25. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.  [As Elaphe bairdi.  Provides 46 literature citations for this species. Declares a record from Cameron County to be erroneous.  Provides a county-based distribution map. - TEL]

_________. 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. 3rd Ed. W. L. Moody, Jr., Nat. Hist. Ser. 25. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.  [As Elaphe (Pantherophis) bairdi.  Provides 51 literature citations for the species.  Ward County is added to the county distribution map and a color photo of a young adult specimen from Crockett County is provided.  I have reviewed this book HERE. - TEL]

Dixon, J.R. and J.E. Werler.  2005.   Texas Snakes: A Field Guide.  Austin: University of Texas Press.   [Pages 130-133, including one color photograph, and a shaded range map depicting the Edwards and Stockton plateau populations as disjunct from those of the Trans-Pecos, which are shown as three isolated groups, the largest of which occupies a swath from the Davis Mountains southward through the Chisos range.  The two smaller disjunct Trans-Pecos populations are shown in Presidio and Ward/ Reeves counties.  These apparent gaps in distribution likely result from the highly conservative approach to distributional records displayed in the earlier work (Werler and Dixon, 2000) from which this map was modified.  Also somewhat controversial is the listing of a 63.5 inch (161 cm) specimen from Bandera County as representing the record size-holder for this species.  While it is almost certain that P. bairdi exceeds 60", this particular specimen (which has been pictured on the internet) appears to be either a hybrid (P. bairdi X obsoleta) or an aberrant example of P. o. lindheimeri, rather than a pure P. bairdi. - TEL]

Dowling, H.G. 1952.  A taxonomic study of the ratsnakes, genus Elaphe Fitzinger.   IV. A checklist of the American forms.  Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 541: 1-12. 

Ernst, C.H. and E.M. Ernst. 2003Snakes of the United States and Canada.  Washington and London: Smithsonian Books.  Pp. 105-108, includes a John Tashjian color photo and a generalized range map. [A good, thorough summary of the literature on this species that is somewhat marred by the questionable statement, under “Predators and Defense,” that “Pet trade collecting is also a problem, as many individuals fail to adjust to captivity (emphasis mine ) or receive poor care,” which contradicts the experience of most who have actually maintained them.  The range map fails to accurately convey the eastern extent of the range while implying a more contiguous distribution in the Trans-Pecos than is actually the case. – TEL]

Farr, W.L., Lazcano, D., and P.A.L. Murcio. 2009.  New Distributional Records for Amphibians and Reptiles from the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico II.  Herp. Rev. 40(4): 459-467.  - [The authors provide two new localities for P. bairdi (44 km NW Ciudad Victoria, 1200 m elev., and 16.1 km SW Ciudad Victoria, also at 1200 m elev.) in Tamaulipas (the former was collected in 2001, the latter is an AMNH specimen from 1969).  According to the authors, these specimens represent only the second and third confirmed records from Tamaulipas (the previous records were from the Sierra San Carlos [Lawson and Lieb 1990, cited in Schulz 1996]).  Additionally, they mention photographic evidence from Alan Kardon establishing the presence of this species near Las Joyas de Miquihuana at 2900 m in elevation.   Ecological associations recorded were "dry pine-oak and juniper forest" for the localities NW of Cd. Victoria and Miquihuana and "oak forest" for the locality SW of Cd. Victoria.  Morphological characteristics were not noted for these specimens, but presumably they conform to the distinctive color pattern class known amongst hobbyists as "Mexican bairdi," which is probably worthy of subspecific recognition.  The authors conclude their bairdi account with the following: "The localities recorded here, combined with three records from the Sierra San Carlos . . . collectively represent every record of P. bairdi from Tamaulipas known to us.  We suspect that these localities represent the southern limit of the species distribution, but the occurrence of this uncommon and secretive snake cannot be ruled out from high elevation areas supporting pine, oak, and juniper habitats farther south in the municipalities of Bustamante, Palmillas, and Tula." - TEL]

Flores-Villela, O. 1993.  Herpetofauna Mexicana. Annotated list of the species of amphibians and reptiles of Mexico, recent taxonomic changes, and new species.  Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ. 17: 1-73. 

Fraser, J. 1983.   A trip to the "Trans-Pecos."  Kansas Herp. Soc. Newsl. 54: 18-23. 

Garman, S. 1883. The reptiles and batrachians of North America.  Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 8(3): 1-185. 

_________. 1884.   The North American reptiles and batrachians.  A list of the species occurring north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, with references.  Bull. Essex Inst. 16: 3-46. 

Gehlbach, F.R., and J.K. Baker. 1962.  Kingsnakes allied with Lampropeltis mexicana: Taxonomy and natural history.  Copeia 1962(2): 291-300. 

Gloyd, H. K. 1944. Texas snakes. Tex. Geogr. 8: 1-18.

Hawthorne, K. 1972.  Rat Snakes: Genus ElapheHerp (Bull. New York Herp. Soc.), 9(1-2): 11-16.  

Hingley, K.J. 1987.  Snakes of the genus Elaphe, their care and breeding in captivity, part 1.  Snake Keeper 1(1): 4-8. 

__________. 1994.  The keeping of the Baird's Ratsnake.  Reptilian Magazine 2(3): 26-27. 

Jameson, D.L. and A.G. Flury 1949.   The reptiles and amphibians of the Sierra Vieja range of southwestern Texas.  Texas J. Sci. 1(2): 54-79. 

Jester, S.L., C.E. Adams, and J.K. Thomas. 1990.  Commercial trade in Texas nongame wildlife.  College Station: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

Lazcano, D., Contreras-Lozano, J.A., Gallardo-Valdez, J., García del Peña, C. and G. Castañeda. 2009.  Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 11: Herpetological Diversity in Sierra “Cerro de La Silla” (Saddleback Mountain), Nuevo León, Mexico.  Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc. 44(2): 21-27.  [Present in the "Cerro de la Silla" natural protected area of Nuevo Leon, Mexico at elevations up to 2300 m. - TEL]

Lawson, R., and C.S. Lieb. 1990.  Variation and hybridization in Elaphe bairdi (Serpemtes: Colubridae).  J. Herpetol. 24(3): 280-292.

Lieb, C.S. 1971.  A study of the variation in Elaphe obsoleta of TexasTASCA 26(1): 3-6.

McCoy, C.J. 1984.  Ecological and zoogeographic relationships of amphibians and reptiles of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin.   J. Arizona-Nevada Acad. Sci. 19(1): 49-59. 

Maxwell, T.C. 2013. Wildlife of the Concho Valley.  College Station: Texas A&M Univ. Press. 292 pp.  [Considered a "marginal" inhabitant of the Concho Basin, mainly from Crockett County, but listed no museum specimens. - TEL]

Mehrtens, J.M. 1987.  Living snakes of the world.  New York: Sterling Publishing Co, Inc. Pp. 1-480. 

Milstead, W.W. 1960a.  Supplementary notes on the herpetofauna of the Stockton Plateau.  Tex. J. Sci.  12(3-4): 228-31.

____________, J.S. Meacham, and H. McClintock. 1950. The amphibians and reptiles of the Stockton Plateau in northern Terrell County, Texas. Tex. J. Sci. 2(4): 543-562. [Reported that two specimens, one active shortly after dawn and another active at about noon, were collected in the live-oak association of Hicks Ranch, which is described as being "along the lower reaches of Independence Creek. . . . where springs provide a constant source of water." The authors further speculated, based on the scalation of these "typically colored" specimens, that bairdi might prove to be a western subspecies of the Elaphe obsoleta complex - TEL]

Minton, S.A. 1959.  Observations on amphibians and reptiles of the Big Bend region of Texas.   Southwest. Nat. 3: 28-54.  [Minton failed to find this species during his almost six month stay there in the first half of 1955, at the tail end of the famous 1950-1956 drought - TEL]

Mulaik, S., and D. Mulaik. 1941bElaphe bairdi from Kerr County, TexasCopeia 1942(1): 263-264.

Olson, R.E. 1967.  Peripheral range extensions and some new records of Texas amphibians and reptiles.  Tex J. Sci. 19(1): 99-106.  Errata: 329.   

_________. 1977.  Evidence for the species status of Baird’s ratsnake.  Tex. J. Sci. 29(1): 79-84. 

Owen, J.G. 1989.  Patterns of herpetofaunal species richness: Relation to temperature, precipitation, and variance in elevation.  J. Biogeogr. 16: 141-150. 

_________ and J.R. Dixon. 1989. An ecogeographic analysis of the herpetofauna of Texas. Southwest Nat. 34(2): 165-180.

Parmley, D. 1986a.  An annotated key to isolated trunk vertebrae of Elaphe (Colubridae) species occurring in Texas.  Tex. J. Sci. 38(1): 41-44.  

Raun, G. G. 1965b. A guide to Texas snakes. Tex. Mem. Mus. Notes 9.  [Treats all "rat snakes" as a group, providing a key only to the species level.  Bairdi is lumped into Elaphe obsoleta, with only the following indication of recognition: "On the Edwards Plateau a variant is found which has a general grayish brown ground color, but lacks dorsal blotches. Each scale is edged with yellow, orange-yellow, or orange."  Not a useful reference. - TEL]

Rhoads, D. 2008The Complete Suboc: A comprehensive guide to the natural history, care, and breeding of the Trans-Pecos Ratsnake.  Lansing, MI: ECO Herpetological Publishing and Distribution.  Pp. x + 291, with many color illustrations.  [A “bonus chapter” (pp. 228-240) covering the other western ratsnakes of North America devotes thirteen pages to P. bairdi, including nineteen color plates and a generalized range map apparently based upon that of Schultz (1996).  Natural history, care, breeding, color and pattern morphs of both Texas and Mexican populations are covered.  Habitat photos are provided for Texas and Mexican populations and local variants are well-illustrated.  The account is slightly skewed toward the Mexican form, which is currently considered more desirable in herpetoculture. – TEL]

Rossi, J.V. and R. Rossi. 1995Snakes of the United States and Canada: Keeping them Healthy in Captivity.  Vol. 2 Western Area.  Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Co.  Pp. 109-110, generalized range map, two small color photos (adult #13, juvenile #14) p. 114[Excellent summary of the maintenance of captives.  The authors consider this species to rank among the easier to keep North American species – TEL]

Schmidt, K.P. 1953. A checklist of North American amphibians and reptiles. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

___________. and D.D. Davis. 1941.  Field book of snakes of the United States and Canada.  New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.  

___________. and T.F. Smith. 1944.  Amphibians and reptiles of the Big Bend region of Texas.   Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 29: 75-96.  ["Three specimens of Elaphe bairdi are available from the Chisos region, two collected by the junior author and one by A. E. Borell, and a fourth specimen was obtained by the junior author from Limpia Canyon, Jeff Davis County. There is no clue to a difference between the Chisos and Davis Mountain specimens. The ventrals and caudals in the two male specimens are 248 and 252, and 92 and 103; and in the two females 244 and 248, and 95 and 85.
      "The coloration differs radically from that described by Yarrow and from Blanchard's diagnosis (Blanchard, 1924, p. 13). The upper parts are dark brown, the venter lighter, clouded with obscure dark markings. Traces of obsolete crossbars can be distinguished only in the smallest specimen (869 mm.); we suspect therefore that the vividly crossbarred pattern of the type is a juvenile character." - TEL]

Schultz, K.D. and H.D. Philippen. 1991.  The systematic-taxonomic position of Elaphe bairdi (Yarrow, 1880).  Litteratura Serpentium 11(6): 138-142. 

Schultz, K.D. 1996A Monograph of the Colubrid Snakes of the Genus Elaphe.  Havlickruv Brod., Czech Republic: Koeltz Scientific Books.  [Pp. 269-272. Includes dorsal and lateral line drawings of the head, an oddly distorted dot locality range map, discussions of the scutellation, distribution, natural history, husbandry and breeding, as well as taxonomic remarks.  Also includes nine color plates, 5 of typically colored individuals from west Texas and 2 each of distinctly colored specimens from Dr. Arroyo and Galeana, Nuevo Leon - TEL] 

Slavens, F.L. and K. Slavens.  1991.  Reptiles and amphibians in captivity, breeding - longevity and inventory.  Seattle: Slaveware.  Pp. 1-505. 

_______________________.  1992.  Reptiles and amphibians in captivity, breeding - longevity and inventory.  Seattle: Slaveware.  Pp. 1-497. 

_______________________.  1993.  Reptiles and amphibians in captivity, breeding - longevity and inventory.  Seattle: 
Slaveware.  Pp. 1-521. 

Smith, H.M. 1938.  Additions to the herpetofauna of Mexico.  Copeia 1938(3): 149-150. 

_________. 1941.  Notes on Mexican snakes of the genus ElapheCopeia 1941(3): 132-136.

_________ and E.D. Brodie, Jr.  1982.   A guide to field identification of the reptiles of North America.   New York: Golden Press.  Pp. 1-240. 

_________ and H.K. Buechner. 1947. The influence of the Balcones Escarpment on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in Texas. Bull. Chi. Acad. Sci. 8(1): 1-16.

_________ and E.H. Taylor. 1950a. Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians.  Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 33: 313-379.

_______________________. 1966.  Herpetology of Mexico.  Annotated checklist and keys to the reptiles and amphibians. 

Somma, L.A. 1989.   Life history notes: Elaphe bairdi (Baird's Rat Snake) - Drinking behavior.  Herp. Review 20(3): 72. 

Stejneger, L. and T. Barbour. 1923. A checklist of North American amphibians and reptiles.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  Pp. 1-125. 

________________________. 1943.  A checklist of North American amphibians and reptiles. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Pp. 1-260. 

Strecker, J.K. 1915.   Reptiles and amphibians of TexasBaylor Univ. Bull. 18(4): 1-82. ["CALLOPELTIS BAIRDI Yarrow.  Baird's Pilot Snake.  The type and only specimen of this species is in the National Museum Collection.  It was collected at Fort Davis, Jeff Davis County." - TEL]

___________. 1928e.  Common English and folk names for Texas amphibians and reptiles.  Contr. Baylor Univ.Mus. 16:1-21.

Tennant, A. 1984. The snakes of Texas. Austin: Texas Monthly Press.

_________. 1985. A field guide to Texas snakes. Austin: Texas Monthly Press

_________. 1998. A field guide to Texas snakes. 2nd edition. Houston: Gulf Publishing.

Utiger, U., N. Helfenberger, B. Schatti, C. Schmidt, M. Ruf, and V. Ziswiler. 2002. Molecular systematics and phylogeny of Old World and New World ratsnakes, Elaphe auct., and related species (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae).  Russ. J. Herpetol. 9(2):105-124.

Vandeweege, M.W., Rodriguez, D., Weaver, J.P., Hibbetts, T.D., Forstner, M.R.J., and L.D. Densmore, III. 2012.  Evidence of hybridization between Elaphe bairdi and Elaphe obsoleta lindheimeri including comparative population genetics inferred from microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA.  J. Herpetol. 46(1): 56-63.

Vermersch, T.G. and R.E. Kuntz. 1986. Snakes of South Central Texas. Eakin Press, Austin, Texas.

Ward, R., E.G. Zimmerman, and T.L. King. 1990.  Multivariate analyses of terrestrial reptile distribution in Texas: An alternative view.  Southwest. Nat. 35(4): 441-445.

Wauer, R.H. 1980Naturalist’s Big Bend.  An introduction to the trees and shrubs, wildflowers, cacti, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, fish, and insects.  College Station: Texas A&M University Press. 

Webb, R.G. 1960.   Notes on some amphibians and reptiles from northern Mexico.  Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 63(4): 289-298. 

Weir, J. 1991.   Baird's Ratsnake, Elaphe bairdiHerptile 16(1): 40-46.  

Werler, J.E. and J.R. Dixon. 2000.  Texas Snakes: Identification, Distribution and Natural History.  Austin: University of Texas Press

Worthington, R.D. 1976.  Herpetofauna of the Franklin Mountains, El Paso County, Texas.  In El Paso Geological Society symposium on the Franklin Mountains, ed. D.V. Lemone and E.M.P. Lovejoy, 205-212.  El Paso: El Paso Geological Society Quinn Memorial Volume.

Wright, A. H. 1935.   Some rare amphibians and reptiles of the United StatesProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 21(6):  340-345.  

___________ and A. A. Wright. 1952. List of the snakes of the United States and Canada by states and provinces. Am. Midl. Nat. 48(3): 574-603.

__________________________. 1957. Handbook of snakes of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, N. Y.: Comstock Publishing Co.

Yarrow, H.C. 1880.   Coluber bairdi sp. nov.  In: Cope, E.D.: On the zoological position of Texas, No.17.  Washington: U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. Pp. 41.  

__________. 1882.  Checklist of North American Reptilia and Batrachia with catalogue of specimens in the U.S. National Museum.  Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 24: 1-249.  

Monday, January 18, 2016

Eastern Patch-nosed Snake (Salvadora grahamiae)

An Annotated Bibliography of the Eastern Patch-nosed Snake
(Salvadora grahamiae)


Compiled by Tom Lott [TEL] - Last updated on 18 January 2016

[These bibliographies and their annotations are an on-going project. I have many comments on papers that I have not yet posted but I will attempt to attend to this task as time allows. Comments proffered in the annotations are strictly my own opinions and should be taken as such. If you wish to comment or supply additional references that I have overlooked, you may contact me via E-mail. To correspond with me, I may be reached at:  tomlott[at]thornscrub[dot]com.  Thanks for reading, Tom Lott ]

Anderson, P.K. 1942.  New record for Salvadora lineata. Copeia 1942: 127.

Axtell, R. W. 1959b. Amphibians and reptiles of the Black Gap Wildlife Management Area, Brewster County, Texas. Southwest. Nat. 4(2): 88-109.  ["Three (1, 2) mountain patch-nosed snakes were secured, two from limestone gravel hills and one from the basalt talus slope.
              "Brown (1950:178) writes that
'Salvadora hexalepis deserticola is a snake inhabiting the dry lowland areas of western Texas while S. grahamiae is to be found on the upper slopes of the mountains.'  We found both S. grahamiae and S. h. deserticola in our area, where local relief was at best no more than five to seven hundred feet.  One specimen of deserticola came from about 200 yards south of Dell Tank where a U.S.G.S. benchmark read 2,069 feet, while an S. grahamiae was found on a hillside approximately 500 yards southeast of Dell Tank where the elevation was not 300 feet higher.  From the few recordings it appears that grahamiae may prefer the rougher rocky slopes, while deserticola inhabits the less rugged floodplain and adjacent flat areas." - TEL]

________.  1977(1978).  Ancient playas and their influence on the recent herpetofauna of the northern Chihuahuan desert. In Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the Chihuahuan desert region, United States and Mexico. Ed. R.W. Wauer and D.H. Riskind, Ser. 3: 493-512.  Alpine, Tex.: National Park Service.

Baker, R.J., Mengden, G.A., and J.J. Bull. 1972.  Karyotypic studies of thirty-eight species of North American snakes.  Copeia 1972(2): 257-265. 

Blair, W.F. 1949. The biotic provinces of Texas. Texas J. Sci. 2(1):93-117.

________. 1953. Growth, dispersal and age of sexual maturity of the Mexican toad (Bufo valliceps Weigmann)> Copeia 1953: 208-212.

________. 1960d. The rusty lizard: a population study. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bogert, C.M. 1939. Notes on snakes of the genus Salvadora with a redescription of a neglected Mexican subspecies. Copeia 1939: 140-147.

_________. 1939. A study of the genus Salvadora, the patch-nosed snakes.  Publ. Biol. Sci., Univ. Calif. Los Angeles 1: 177-236.

Boulenger, E.G. 1896Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, vol. 1.  London: Taylor and Francis

Boundy, J.  1997.  Maximum lengths of North American Snakes.  Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc. 29(6): 109-122.
[Cites the maximum length of the nominate subspecies as 953 mm (37.5 in., fide Conant 1975) and as 1194 mm (47.0 in., fide Conant 1958) for S. g. lineata.  - TEL]


Brattstrom, B.H. 1967. A succession of Pliocene and Pleistocene snake faunas from the High Plains of the United States.  Copeia 1967: 188-202.

Brennan, J.N. 1945.  Field investigations pertinent to Bullis fever: Preliminary report on the species of ticks and vertebrates occurring at Camp Bullis, Texas.  Texas Rept. Biol. Med. 3: 112-121. 

Brown, A.E. 1901a.  A review of the genera and species of American snakes north of Mexico.  Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.  53:10-110.

_________. 1903b.  Texas reptiles and their faunal relations.  Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.  55:543-558.

Brown, B. C. 1950. An annotated check list of the reptiles and amphibians of Texas. Waco: Baylor University Studies. 

Burchfield, P.M., T.F. Beimler, and C.S. Doucette. 1982.  An unusual precoital head-biting behavior in the Texas patchnosed snake, Salvadora grahamiae lineata (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae). Copeia 1982: 192-193.  [On two occasions in mid-April of 1977, a sexual pair of this species captured at the same location exhibited mating behavior in captivity that was unusual.  First, the female of the pair was already gravid, but allowed copulation (the female laid nine eggs the following day, the timing of which is fairly normal for this species in south Texas).  Second, on each occasion the male grasped the head of the female in a manner that differed from the well-known neck-biting actions characteristic of many colubrids (other than the head biting, the copulatory behavior followed the typical colubrid pattern).  This head grasping behavior, however, was more consistent with that seen in a cannibalistic attack than in typical precoital ritual and continued throughout the copulations.  It would appear that this conduct, if indeed pervasive in this species, could easily be mistaken for a cannibalistic attack. - TEL]

Butterfield, B.P., S.E. Trauth, T.W. Steward, V.R. McDaniel, and P. McLarty. 1991. New county records of amphibians and reptiles from Texas.  Herpetol. Rev. 22: 28  [Eastland County record. - TEL]

Camper, J.D. and B.G. Hanks. 1995. Variation in the nucleolus organizer region among New World snakes.  J. Herpetol. 29: 468-471.

Carl, G. 1980.  Distributional records for Johnson County, Texas.  Herpetol. Rev. 11: 116-117.  [Johnson County record. - TEL]

Cochran, D.M. 1961.  Type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the United States National Museum.  Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 220: 1-291.

Conant, R. 1942.  Notes on the young of three recently described snakes, with comments upon their relationships.  Bull. Chic. Acad. Sci. 6: 193-200.

_______ . 1958. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of the United States and Canada east of the 100th meridian. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

_______ . 1975. A field guide to the reptiles and amphibians: Eastern and central North America. 2nd edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

_______ . and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to the reptiles and amphibians: Eastern and central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

_______ . and ______. 1998. A field guide to the reptiles and amphibians: Eastern and central North America. 3rd edition (expanded) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Cope, E. D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Annu. Rept. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 155-1294.

Cox, C.L., C.E. Roelke, and B. Pope. 2008.  Geographic distribution.  Salvadora grahamiae lineata (Texas patch-nosed snake).  Herpetol. Rev. 39: 373.  [Shackleford County record, from Hwy. 351 ca. 4.8 km S jct. with Hwy. 180. - TEL]

Davenport, J.W. 1943. Field book of the snakes of Bexar County, Texas, and vicinity.  San Antonio: Witte Memorial Museum.  Out of Print.

Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W. and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.

Dixon, J. R. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. W. L. Moody, Jr., Nat. Hist. Ser. 8. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

_______ . 1993. Supplement to the literature for the Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. 1987. Smithson. Herpetol. Info. Serv. 94: 1-43.

_______ . 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. 2nd Ed. W. L. Moody, Jr., Nat. Hist. Ser. 25. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.  [Provides 90 literature citations for this species.  Notes that D. L. Lannutti is tudying the systematics of the species at UTEP.  A county-based distribution map is provided. - TEL]

_______ . 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas. 3rd Ed. W. L. Moody, Jr., Nat. Hist. Ser. 25. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.  [Provides 93 literature citations for the species.  Color photos of the nominate subspecies from Presidio County and S. g. lineata from Edwards County are provided.  A county-based distribution map is included.  Remarks are unchanged from the 2000 edition. I have reviewed this book HERE. - TEL]

_______ . and J.E. Werler.  2005.   Texas Snakes: A Field Guide.  Austin: University of Texas Press.  

Dunham, A.E. 1981.  Populations in a fluctuating environment: The comparative population ecology of the iguanid lizards Sceloporus merriami and Urosaurus ornatusUniv. Mich. Publ. Mus. Zool.  158: 1-62.

Ernst, C.H. and E.M. Ernst. 2003Snakes of the United States and Canada.  Washington and London: Smithsonian Books.

Gloyd, H.K. 1944.  Texas snakes.  Tex. Geogr. 8: 1-18. 

Gutberlet, R.L., C.L. Stewart, and M.B. Keck. 1998.  New distributional records for Texas reptiles and amphibians. Southwest. Nat. 43: 6-12.  [Karnes County record, FM 99 Coy City. - TEL]

Hampton, N. 1976. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Travis County, Texas. In A bird finding and naturalist's guide for Austin, Texas, area. ed E. Kutac and S. Caran, 84-101. Austin: Oasis Press.

Hartweg, H. 1940. Description of Salvadora intermedia, new species, with remarks on the grahamiae group.  Copeia 1940: 256-259.

Husack, J.F. and J. Wright. 1998b.  Geographic distribution. Salvadora grahamiae lineata.  Herpetol. Rev. 29: 116.  [Tom Green County record - TEL]

Jameson, D.L. and A.G. Flury. 1949.  Reptiles and amphibians of the Sierra Vieja.  Tex. J. Sci. 1(2): 54-79.

Karges, J.P. 1979.  Texas amphibians and reptiles: Some new distributional records. Part II. Herpetol. Rev. 10: 119-121.  [Dimmit, Duval, and Maverick county records. - TEL]

__________. 1981.  Texas amphibians and reptiles: Some new distributional records. Part III. Herpetol. Rev. 12(2): 68-69.  [Jim Hogg County record, 1.6 km NE Hebbronville. - TEL]

__________. 1982.  Texas amphibians and reptiles: Some new distributional records. Part IV. Herpetol. Rev. 13: 27.  [Zapata County record, on US 83, 9.7 km N San Ygnacio. - TEL]

Landwer, A.J. and T.E. Lee. 2001f.  Geographic distribution. Salvadora grahamiae (Texas patchnose snake).  Herpetol. Rev. 32: 124.  [Taylor County record, from 1.6 km N Lake Abilene. - TEL]

Licht, L.E. 1968.  Unpalatability and toxicity of toad eggs. Herpetologica 24: 93-98.  ["Tests with snakes were designed to observe the effects of ovarian eggs when ingested. Several hundred ovarian eggs were freeze-dried to a fine powder, placed in gelatin capsules . . ., and force fed to the snakes...
              "A 
Salvadora lineata (female, 24.4 g) was given .10 g of dried egg, and an Opheodrys aestivus (female, 42 g) was given .12 g of egg.  Both snakes are nontoad-eaters.  Two Thamnophis sirtalis, toad eaters, were also fed dried ovarian egg.  One (female, 21.5 g) was given .11 g of egg; the second (female, 51.2 g)was given .10 g of egg.
              "The 
Salvadora began opening and closing its mouth about 40 min after egg ingestion.  It then began rolling over continually onto its back, with its mouth open.  It would remain quiescent for 5-10 min, and begin rolling again.  The mouth continually opened and closed.  Three hours and 55 min after egg ingestion, final pronounced muscular tetany from snout to vent was culminated by death.
              "The same sequence of symptoms was observed in the 
Opheodrys which died in 5 hours and 15 min.
              "Neither of the
T. sirtalis showed any ill effects and both and both appeared normal and fed one month later." - TEL]


________ and B. Low. 1968.  Cardiac response of snakes after ingestion of toad parotoid venom.  Copeia 1968: 547-551.

Logan, L.E., and C.C. Black. 1979.  The Quaternary vertebrate fauna of Upper Sloth Cave, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas.  Natl. Parks Serv. Trans. Proc. Ser. 4: 141-158.

Marx, H. 1958.  Catalogue of type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Chicago Natural History Museum.  Fieldiana Zool. 36: 411-496.

Maxwell, T.C. 2013. Wildlife of the Concho Valley.  College Station: Texas A&M Univ. Press. 292 pp.  [Listed as "rare in southeastern and southern counties" of the Concho Basin but speculated that this impression may be due more to difficulty in catching fast-moving snakes than to actual scarcity - this is doubtful given that large numbers may be found under surface cover.  Maxwell could find only 5 museum specimens from the Basin, one each from Concho, Crockett, and Schleicher counties and two from Menard County - TEL]

McAllister, C.T., M.C. Wooten, and T.L. King. 1981.  Geographic distribution.  Salvadora grahamiae lineata.  Herpetol. Rev. 12(2): 66.  [Llano County record, 13.4 kn S Llano, off TX 16. - TEL]

 Mecham, J. S. 1979. The biogeographical relationships of the amphibians and reptiles of the Guadalupe Mountains. Nat. Park Serv. Trans. Proc. Ser. 4: 169-79.

Milstead, W.W., J.S. Meacham, and H. McClintock. 1950. The amphibians and reptiles of the Stockton Plateau in northern Terrell County, Texas. Tex. J. Sci. 2(4): 543-562.  ["Two specimens were collected on the Blackstone Ranch.  One was from the cedar-savannah and one was from the cedar-ocotillo association.  Blair collected an additional specimen in May from the cedar-ocotillo association near Gravel Springs.  This animal, a female, laid nine eggs soon after capture, and two of these were hatched in the laboratory during the summer." - TEL]

Minton, S.A. 1958(1959).  Observations on amphibians and reptiles of the Big Bend region of Texas.  Southwest. Nat. 3: 28-54. [Described S. grahamiae as being "largely restricted to the foothills and mesas from about 3300 to 5500 feet."  Usually seen on "mild, sunny mornings," his earliest specimen was found on 26 February.  He also describes them as quick to escape in brushy cover, but tending to freeze on road surfaces.  A female collected on 1 April deposited 6 eggs on 29 May.  Three of these eggs hatched on 27-28 August, with the young measuring 263, 264, and 267 mm, and strongly resembling adults in pattern and coloration. - TEL]

Morafka, D.J. 1977. A biogeographical analysis of the Chihuahuan desert through its herpetofauna. Biogeographica 9: 1-313.

___________. 1977 (1978).  Is there a Chihuahuan Desert? A quantitative evaluation through a herpetofauna perspective.  In Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the Chihuahuan desert region, United States and Mexico. Eds. R.W. Wauer and D.H. Riskind, Ser. 3: 437-454.  Alpine, Tex.: National Park Service.

Mosaur, W. 1932.  The amphibians and reptiles of the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico and Texas.  Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 246: 1-18.

Owen, J. G. 1989. Patterns of herpetofaunal species richness: Relation to temperature, precipitation, and variance in elevation. J. Biogeogr. 16: 141-50.

________ and J. R. Dixon. 1989. An ecogeographic analysis of the herpetofauna of Texas. Southwest. Nat. 34(2): 165-80.

Porter, Stuart T. 1969. An ecological survey of the herpetofauna of Palo Pinto County, Texas.  M.S. Thesis, North Texas State Univ. Pp. 1-55.  ["None of these were collected, but records from Conant (1942) and from specimens examined from the museums at North Texas State University (Denton, Texas) and Texas A. and M. University (College Station, Texas) indicate the presence of this snake in both the Oak Association and the Mesquite-Prairie Association. The Texas patch-nosed snake has a western distribution, but reaches its northeastern limit in Palo Pinto County." - TEL]

Ramirez-Bautista, A., X. Hernandez-Ibarra, and R. Torres-Cervantes. 2000. Natural history notes: Salvadora grahamiae lineata (Texas Patch-nosed Snake). Diet. Herpetol. Rev. 31(3): 180.  [A 5 g, 45 mm SVL partially digested Sceloporus s. scalaris was removed from the stomach of a 573 mm specimen of this species taken on the road between Las Lagunas and La Noria de las Flores, San Luis Potosi. - TEL]

Ramsey, L.W. 1951.  New localities for several Texas snakes. Herpetologica 7: 176.

Raun, G.G. 1959.  Terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates of a moist, relict area in Central Texas.  Tex. J. Sci. 14: 3-6.
[The author considered this species to be a western form near the eastern limits of its distribution in the vicinity of the relictual moist area partially contained within the Palmetto State Park, Gonzales County, Texas.  It was confined to the Post Oak-Blackjack vegetational community. - TEL]


_________. 1965b. A Guide to Texas Snakes. Tex. Mem. Mus. Notes 9.  [Account consists of a very brief sketch of the three forms of Salvadora found in Texas.  Includes a key to the forms, a black-and-white photo of S. g. lineata, a vague description of the range, food, habitat, and reproduction of each, as well as a notation of which of Blair's (1950) biotic provinces of Texas the form may be found. Not a particularly helpful reference. - TEL]

_________. 1966b. A population of woodrats (Neotoma micropus) in southern Texas.  Bull. Tex. Mem. Mus. 11 [Listed as a "presumed" predator of N. micropus, but such would be possible, given the size differential, only on newborn rat pups. - TEL]

_________.  and F.R. Gehlbach. 1972.  Amphibians and reptiles in Texas. Dallas Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 2: 1-61.

Rosen, P.C. 2005.  Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: The San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona.  USDA Forest Ser. Proc. Pp. 106-111.  [A survey of museum records from areas within two miles of the riparian bottomland of the river  yielded no Salvadora grahamiae, but it was listed as "expected" to occur in the "upper basin in Mexico, which has not been extensively surveyed."  Nine specimens of S. hexalepis, however, were found to be vouchered from the entire US reach of the river. - TEL]

Schmidt, K.P. 1940.  Notes on Texas snakes of the genus SalvadoraField Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 24: 143-150.
[The original description of this taxon as a full species, based upon a specimen from Kingsville, Texas.  In hindsight it seems remarkable that Schmidt, in this same paper, described S. deserticola as a subspecies of S. hexalepis, but failed to notice the substantial resemblance between his S. lineata and S. grahamiae - TEL]


_________. 1953. A checklist of North American amphibians and reptiles. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

_________. and D.D. Davis. 1941Field book of snakes of the United States and Canada.  New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

_________. and T.F. Smith. 1944.  Amphibians and reptiles of the Big Bend region of Texas.  Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. 29:75-96  ["Two specimens from the Basin, collected by the writers in 1937, were discussed by the senior author in his description of the east Texan Salvadora lineata. The Chisos population of grahamiae is
widely isolated from that of southern Arizona, and affords a taxonomic problem for further study." - TEL]

Seifert, W. 1978d.  Geographic distribution.  Salvadora grahamiae lineataHerpetol Rev. 9(2): 62.  [Robertson County record, 4.8 km S Franklin. - TEL]

Smith, H.M. 1938d. Notes on the snakes of the genus SalvadoraUniv. Kans. Sci. Bull. 25: 229-237.

_________.  and H. K. Buechner. 1947. The influence of the Balcones Escarpment on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in Texas. Bull. Chi. Acad. Sci. 8(1): 1-16.

_________ and D. Chiszar. 1997. New records for amphibians and reptiles from Texas.  Herpetol. Rev. 28: 99-100.  [Willacy County record, 6.3 km E Porfirio. - TEL]

_________, P.A. Langbartel, and K.L. Williams. 1964. Type-specimens in the University of Illinois Museum of Natural History. III.  Biol. Monogr. 32: 1-80.

_________ and O. Sanders. 1952a.  Distributional data on Texas amphibians and reptiles.  Tex. J. Sci. 4: 204-219.

_________. and E.H. Taylor. 1945. An annotated checklist and key to the snakes of Mexico. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 187:1-239.

________. 1950a.  Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians.  Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 33:313-379.

Stallcup, W.B. 1961.  Notes on the vertebrate collection in the Department of Biology, Southern Methodist University.  J. Grad. Res. Ctr. 29: 66-69.

Stebbins, R. C. 1954. Amphibians and reptiles of western North America.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

____________. 1966. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Stone, W. 1903.  A collection of reptiles and batrachians from Arkansas, Indian Territory, and western Texas.  Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 55: 538-542.

__________. 1911.  On some collections of reptiles and batrachians from the western United States.  Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 63: 222-232.

Strecker, J.K. 1908a. The reptiles and batrachians of Victoria and Refugio counties, Texas.  Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21: 47-52.

____________. 1908c. The reptiles and batrachians of McLennan County, Texas.  Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21: 69-84.

____________. 1926d.  A list of reptiles and amphibians collected by Louis Garni in the vicinity of Boerne, Texas.  Contr. Baylor Univ. Mus. 6: 3-9.

____________. 1928e.  Common English and folk names for Texas amphibians and reptiles.  Contr. Baylor Univ. Mus. 16:1-21.

____________. 1930. A catalogue of the amphibians and reptiles of Travis County, Texas. Contr. Baylor Univ. Mus. 23: 1-16.

____________. 1935f.  The reptiles of West Frio Canyon, Real County, Texas.  Baylor Univ. Bull. 38:32.

____________ and J.E. Johnson. 1935. Notes on the herpetology of Wilson County, Texas. Baylor Univ. Bull. 38:17-23.

____________ and W.J. Williams. 1927. Herpetological records from the vicinity of San Marcos, Texas, with distributional data on the amphibians and reptiles of the Edwards Plateau region and Central Texas. Contr. Baylor Univ. Mus. 12: 1-16.

Swanson, R. L.  2009.  Temporal and spatial trends of the amphibians, reptiles, and mammals of the relict Ottine Wetlands.  MS Thesis, Texas State Univ. 83 pp.  [Swanson failed to find this species during a 16-month study, while Raun (1959) found one specimen during a 10-month study fifty years earlier, further supporting the contention that it is at the eastern limit of its distribution in this area.  This taxon is generally common where it occurs. - TEL]

Taggart, T.W., K.J. Irwin, and A. Sweetman. 1994.  Geographic distribution. Salvadora grahamiaeHerpetol. Rev. 25: 77. [Hamilton County record, just SE of the jct. of Rt. 281 and the Bosque River. - TEL]

Tennant, A. 1984. The snakes of Texas. Austin: Texas Monthly Press.

__________. 1985. A field guide to Texas snakes. Austin: Texas Monthly Press.

__________. 1998. A field guide to Texas snakes. 2nd edition. Houston: Gulf Publishing.

__________. and Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.

Turner, D.S., P.A. Holm, E.B. Wirt, and C.R. Schwalbe 2003.  Amphibians and reptiles of the Whetstone Mountains, Arizona.  Southwest. Nat. 48(3): 347-355.  [Study documented the presence of both Salvadora grahamiae and S. hexalepis in the range.  The latter was found in Madrean Woodland during the summer and in Semidesert Grassland during the spring.  Habitat of  S. grahamiae was not mentioned. - TEL]

Upton, S.J. and C.T. McAllister. 1990.  The Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Serpentes, with descriptions of three new species from colubrid snakes.  Can. J. Zool. 68: 855-864.

Vermersch, T.G. and R.E. Kuntz. 1986. Snakes of South Central Texas. Eakin Press, Austin, Texas.

Ward, R., E.G. Zimmerman and T.L. King. 1990.  Multivariate analyses of terrestrial reptile distribution in Texas: An alternate view.  Southwest. Nat. 35:441-445.

Wauer, R.H. 1980Naturalist's Big Bend. An introduction to the trees and shrubs, wildflowers, cacti, mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, fish and insects.  College Station: TexasA&M University Press.

Werler, J.E., and J.R. Dixon. 2000. Texas Snakes. Identification, distribution, and natural history.  Austin: University of Texas Press. 

Worthington, R.D. 1976.  Herpetofauna of the Franklin Mountains, El Paso County, Texas.  In El Paso Geological Society symposium on the Franklin Mountains, ed. D.V. Lemone and E.M.P. Lovejoy, 205-212.  El Paso:
El Paso Geological Society Quinn Memorial Volume.  [Simply stated that the status of populations of this species in the Franklin Mountains was not known - TEL]

Wright, A. H., and A. A. Wright. 1952. List of the snakes of the United States and Canada by states and provinces. Am. Midl. Nat. 48(3): 574-603.


___________________________. 1957. Handbook of snakes of the United States and Canada. Ithaca, N. Y.: Comstock Publishing Co